There are two groups approaches insides meaning of system, that is that emphasized in the procedure and emphasized in component or the element. Approach system more emphasized in procedure defines system as follows:
“A system is a work network from procedures mutual connected, gather together to do a activity or to finish a certain target”.
Approach system that be work network from procedure more emphasized in sequence operation insides system. Procedure is defined by Richard F. Neuschel as follows:
“A procedure is a sequence operation klerikal (writing), usually involve several persons insides one or more departement, applied to guarantee handling uniform from that business transaction”.
Jerry FitzGerald, Ardra F. FitzGerald and Warren D. Stalling, Jr define procedure as follows:
“A procedure is a correct sequence from instruction stages that explain what must be done, who does, when done and how do it”.
Approach system more emphasized in element or the component defines system as follows:
“System is a collection from interacted elements to achieve a specific purpose”.
1. System Characteristics
A system has characteristics or certain characters, that is has components, boundary, environments, interface, input, output, process and objectives or goal.
A system consists of amount of component interact, with the meaning mutual cooperate to form one unitary. System components can be in the form of a subsystem or parts from system. Every subsystem has characters from system to run a certain function and influence system process as a whole. A system can has a larger ones system that is called with supra system.
Boundary is region that limit between a system with another system or with environment outside it. This boundary makes a system is looked at as an unitary.
Environments from a system is whatever outsides of system limit that influence system operation. Environments system can has beneficial and can has also harm that system. Environments that beneficial to be energy from system and that must permanent be watched over and maintained. Environments that harm must under arrest and controlled, if not it will disturb continuance will live of system.
Interface is interface media between one subsystem with another subsystem. Pass this interface makes power sources flows from one subsystem to another subsystem. Output from subsystem will be input for the other subsystem through interface. With interface one subsystem can integrated with another subsystem make one unitary.
Input is energy that putted into system. Input can be in the form of maintenance input and signal input. Maintenance input is energy insert so that system can operate. Signal input is energy that processed to got output.
Output is result from energy that cultivated and classified to be useful output and exile remainder. Output can be input for other subsystem or to supra system.
A system can has a process part that will change input will be output.
A system must has goal and objective. Target from system very determine once input that wanted system and output that be produced system.
2. System Classification
System can classified from several view point, that is:
1. System classifieds as abstract system and physical system.
Abstract system is system shaped thinking or ideas not appear physically.
Physical system is existing system physically.
2. System classifieds as natural system and human made system.
Natural system is system that passes nature process, is not made human.
Human made system is system that designed by human. Human made system involves interaction between human mechanically called with human-machine system or there also that called with man-machine system.
3. System classifieds as deterministic system and probabilistic system.
Deterministic system has operated with behaviour that can be predicted. Interaction between that parts can be detected categorically, so that product from system predictable.
Probabilistic system is system time condition in front of it can not be predicted because contain probability element.
4. System classifieds as closed system and open system.
Closed system is system doesn't connected and not influenced by environment. Theoretically this closed system is there, but in reality there is no system genuinely closed, existing only relatively closed system.
Open system is that system and influenced by environment outside. This system gets input and produce product for environment outside or the other subsystem.
Concept Base Information
Robert N. Anthony and John Dearden called condition from system in the connection with in the end with entropy. Information good for system will avoid process entropy that called with negative entropy or negentropy.
“Information is data that cultivated to be form usefuler and more mean for that accept it”.
1. Information Cycle.
Data be form that still raw not yet can tell many story so that necessary be cultivated furthermore. Data that cultivated to pass a model is information, receivers then get information, make a decision and do action, will mean to produce a other action that will make amount of data will return. Data be caught as input, processed to return via a model and further form a cycle. This cycle is by John Burch is called with information cycle or data processing cycle.
2. Information Quality
Quality from a information dependings from three things, that is information must accurate, timeliness, and relevance.
Accurate, mean information must free from errors and not refraction or mislead. Accurate also mean information be clear reflect the purpose.
Timeliness, mean that information in receivers may not late. Because information is based insides decision making.
Relevance, mean information has benefit for the user.
3. Information Value.
Value of information is determined by two matters, that is benefit and cost get it.
Concept Base Information System
Information system is defined by Robert A. Leitch and K. Roscoe Davis as follows:
“Information system is a system insides a organization that confront daily transaction processing need, support operation, has managerial and strategy activity from a organization and prepare certain outside with reports that are need”.